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Fortifying China

The Struggle to Build a Modern Defense Economy
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Fortifying China explores the titanic struggle to turn China into an aspiring world-class military technological power. The defense economy is leveraging the country's vibrant civilian economy and gaining access to foreign sources of technology and know-how. Drawing on extensive Chinese-language sources, Tai Ming Cheung explains that this transformation has two key dimensions. The defense economy is being reengineered to break down bureaucratic barriers and reduce the role of the state, fostering a more competitive and entrepreneurial culture to facilitate the rapid diffusion and absorption of technology and knowledge. At the same time, the civilian and defense economies are being integrated to form a dual-use technological and industrial base. In Cheung's view, the Chinese authorities believe this strategy will play a key role in supporting long-term defense modernization.
1. Bridging the Civil-Military Technological Divide in the Information AgeIntegrating the Civilian and Defense EconomiesChina's Enduring Quest for Wealth and Military PowerThe National Innovation Systems FrameworkExamining the Defense Economy through the NIS PrismUnderstanding How Defense Technological Innovation Takes Place2. Innovation and Stagnation during the Maoist EraThe Building of the Conventional and Strategic Weapons BasesThe Defense Economy's Relationship with the Maoist NISThe Setup of the Conventional and Strategic Weapons SystemsThe Floundering of the Conventional Defense Industrial SystemBarriers to Conventional Weapons InnovationThe Flourishing of the Strategic Weapons SystemThe Consolidation of the Defense Economy in the Late 1970s3. The Eclipse of the Defense Economy under Deng XiaopingThe Defense Economy and Its Relationship with the NIS in the 1980sDefense ConversionThe Impact of Conversion on the Defense EconomySuccesses and Drawbacks of ConversionThe Struggle to Overhaul the Legacy Defense Industrial BaseKey Activities of the SystemThe State of the Defense Economy by the Late 1990s4. The Revival of the Defense Economy in the Twenty-first CenturySetting the Stage for Bold ReformsThe Relationship between the Defense and National Innovation SystemsReform and Consolidation BeginKey Activities of the Rejuvenated Defense Innovation SystemThe Prospects for Catching Up and Leapfrogging5. Building a Dual-Use EconomyFrom Defense Conversion to Dual Use and Spin-OnDefining the Yujun Yumin Dual-Use EconomyChinese Approaches to Civil-Military Integration and Spin-OnBuilding Linkages between the Civilian and Defense EconomiesHarnessing Civilian High Technology Companies for Military PurposesThe Geographical Landscape of Dual Use and CMIThe Chinese Approach in Comparative Perspective6. Can the Chinese Defense Economy Catch Up?The Techno-Nationalist Underpinning of the Catch-Up ApproachThe Debate over China's Military Technological Catching UpThe Developmental Models for Catching UpConditions for Technological Catching Up and the Case of the Space IndustryPolicy Challenges for the United StatesAppendix: Chinese TermsAppendix: Historical Official Exchange Rates between the Renminbi and U.S. Dollar, 1955-2008Select Chinese-Language BibliographyIndex

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